• K.O. Dinga Department of Electrical Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
  • D. B.O Konditi Faculty of Engineering, Multi-Media University College of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
  • H Ouma School of Engineering, University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya


For a long time microwave engineers have dreamed of using non-ionizing electromagnetic waves to image the
human body in order to detect cancer. Over the past several years, significant progress has been made
towards making this dream a reality for breast cancer detection. In the next decade, microwave systems are
likely to become viable diagnostic option for many women and men alike. More so than for any other cancers,
breast tumors have electrical properties at microwave frequencies that are significantly different from those of
healthy breast tissues. The breast can easily be accessed from outside, while internal organs are much less
accessible. Normal breast tissue is also more translucent to microwaves than many other tissues, such as
muscle or brain. Phenomenal progress in computers and numerical techniques during the past decade allows
us to effectively process data acquired through measurements. This work proposes a new methodology for
analyzing malignant tumors. The methodology will be based on finite volume time domain (FVTD) modeling
approach. In the past finite difference time domain modeling schemes have been used to detect tumors.
However, though it is simple and has wide frequency coverage, its main drawback is that it is computationally
intensive. To overcome this drawback finite volume time domain (FVTD) is proposed as a suitable modeling
technique for the problem.