NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF MUTANTS AND SOMACLONAL VARIANTS OF SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L) MOENCH) IN KENYA

  • E. G. O. Omondi, Department of Botany, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
  • M. N. Makobe, Department of Botany, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
  • C.A Onyango, Department of Food Science and Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi
  • L. G. Matasyoh Department of Biological Science, Chepkoilel University College, School of Science, Eldoret, Kenya
  • M. O. Imbuga Department of Biochemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi
  • E. N. Kahangi Department of Horticulture, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi
Keywords: Varieties, mutants, somaclones, drought-tolerance, nutritional traits, anti-nutrients

Abstract

Several improved sorghum varieties are adapted to semi-arid and tropic environments. Selection of varieties
meeting specific local food and industrial requirements from this great biodiversity is important for food
security in Kenya and other developing countries. More than 7000 sorghum varieties have been identified
hence, need for further characterization with respect to nutritional traits. Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench mutants
and somaclone lines (Seredo, Serena, Mtama 1 and El-gardam) were developed towards improvement for
drought tolerance at the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. Using mutation techniques.
X-ray with the dose of 15000R was used to induce genetic variation. Somaclones were produced through
somatic embryogenesis on Linsmaier and Skoog’s (LS) media with 0.5 M concentration of Mannitol as an
osmoticum to simulate drought conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, Bvitamins,
mineral profile, anti-nutrient content and levels of protein digestibility of somaclones, mutants and
parents of the Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench local cultivar in Kenya (namely Mtama 1, Seredo, El Gardam and
Serena). The proximate composition, B-vitamins, anti-nutrient contents and levels of protein digestibility of the
flour from the cultivars were determined. The chemical components did not vary among and within varieties
(P ≥ 0.05). Serena and Seredo showed high levels of Anti-nutreint (phytates and Tannins) than Mtama 1 and Eldargam
(tannin: 0.03-2.22%, Phytates: 124.3-374 mg/100 g) (P ≥ 0.05). The somaclones and mutants of the
sorghum cultivars except Mtama 1 were noted to have reduced quantities of tannin. Protein digestibility
range, between 39.1%-88.4% and were low in Seredo and Serena than in Mtama 1 and El-gardam. No
differences (P ≥ 0.05) were observed among and within the treatments of the same varieties of the sorghum
for proximate composition, B-vitamins and mineral compositions (p < 0.05). It was concluded that major
variations among the varieties arose due to anti-nutrients. High anti-nutrient factors would affect the
utilization of the Serena and Seredo varieties since these anti-nutrients reduced the availability other
nutrients.

Published
2019-05-16