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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

The corresponding author is responsible for the manuscript during the peer-review process. Therefore, the corresponding author must verify the inclusion of all eligible co-authors and that they approve submission to the journal.

Manuscript preparation:


  1. FORMAT - Manuscripts should be typewritten, on one side of a white paper with ample margins of at least 2.5 cm all around. Use standard A4 size paper (21 x29.8cm). All copies including references, legends and other subsidiary matters must be double-spaced regardless of the size type in which the material appears in printed form.  The format of articles should be in the following order: Title page; Abstract; Introduction, Materials & Methods; Results; Discussion & Conclusions; Acknowledgements; References, Appendices.
  2. TITLE PAGE - The cover page should include the title of the manuscript, the names of the author(s) and the(ir) affiliation(s) and a complete correspondence address and Telephone/E-Mail/Fax Number. 

        TITLE - The title should be a precise and concise description of the contents of the paper.  Serial titles of related papers are not accepted unless at least the first two manuscripts are submitted together.

     RUNNING TITLE - A concise running title should be provided at the foot of the title page. It should not be more than seven words.

  1. ABSTRACT - The abstract should be on a separate page. It should be a non-critical informative summary of the content and the findings, not to exceed 5% of the length of the article.  There is no abstract for notes, news and reports.
  2. MAIN TEXT-The manuscript must conform to current standards of English style and usage. First and third-person pronouns are preferred for clarity. Abbreviations should generally be in accordance with the Systeme International d'Unites (S1) version of the metric system (Downs, 1988). Certain abbreviations, such as those for chemicals and standard procedures, should always be written first in full, followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis. Metric units must be used.  Footnotes should be avoided.  Use of italics should be indicated by single underlining for scientific names (except for authority), Latin expressions and descriptive foreign phrases.  In reporting measurements, more than three significant digits are rarely justified.
  3. TABLES - Type tables on separate pages in the simplest form. Number each table with Arabic numerals, e.g., Table 1. Each table must have a brief title typed on a different paper from the one the table is on.  Tables should document, but not duplicate, data already given in the text.  The desired position of each table should be marked in the margin of the text page where each table should be inserted.  Standard abbreviations may be used in tables and figures if necessary, for format considerations.
  4. FIGURES- Figures are most conveniently handled when submitted in A4 page size. On the back of each figure, write tightly in pencil the number of the figure in Arabic numerals (e.g. Fig. 1,2,3 .... ) and the senior author's first name and an arrow indicating top.  Photographs should have a glossy finish, be unblurred, and show sharp contrast between light and dark areas.  Legends for illustrations should be typewritten on a separate sheet with Arabic numerals corresponding with figures.  Line drawings should be made with Indian ink on heavy white drawing paper, blue tracing or when necessary on blue ruled co-ordinate paper.  Use the same abbreviations on fine drawings as in text.  For line drawings to be accepted, they must be equivalent to a professional draftsman's work.  Figures should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper, and approximate place of insertion should be indicated in margin of text pages.
  5. REFERENCES IN THE TEXT- Only articles or books that have been published or are in press may be included in the list of references. Any other material must be accompanied by permission from the source. Papers presented at conferences or symposia may not be listed.  References should be cited in the text using the Harvard system; citing the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of the publication. If the author(s) and the years are identical for more than one reference, insert lower case letters (in alphabetical sequence) after the year. Use semi-colons to separate multiple references and list in alphabetical and not chronological order. Examples:
  • One author: Kang'oro (1992) or (Kang'oro, 1987).
  • Two authors: Kang'oro and Kinja (1992) or (Kang'oro and Kinja, 1992)
  • Three or more authors: Kang'oro et al. (1992) or (Kang'oro et al., 1992)
  • More than one identical references: (Kang'oro, 1992 a or Kang'oro, 1992 b
  • Multiple references: (Kang'oro,1992; Kinja,1928; Auma, 1990)
  1. LIST OF REFERENCES - The citations should be listed alphabetically. With more than one reference to the same author, list them chronologically after the acknowledgement section but starting on a new page.  Use the International Serials Catalogue for abbreviations of journal names and when in doubt give the full name of the periodical.  Authors must verify references against the original documents before submitting articles.  The listing of journal articles should be as follows; author's name, year (in brackets), title of the paper, journal title (in italics), volume (in bold), issue (where necessary) and page numbers. Examples: Mutero C. M and Birley H. M. (1987).  The effect of pre-gravid development on the estimation of mosquito survival rates.  Journal of Applied Entomology. 107, 96 - 101.  For books the listing should be as follows; authors name, the year (in brackets) the title of the book (in italics), page reference, publishers name and the place of publication e.g.
  • Muirhead- Thompson E. C. (1982) Behaviour pattern of blood sucking flies. pp 220. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
  • Mutinga M. J. and Kamau C. C. (1992) Rearing of phlebotomine sandflies in techniques of insect rearing for the development of integrated pest and vector management strategies Ochieng'-Odero J.P.R. (Ed.) pp. 483-504.
  • Belsky A. J., Amundson R. G., Duxbury J. M., Riha S. J., Ali A. R. and Mwonga S. M. (1989). The effects of trees on their physical, chemical and biological environments in a semi-arid savannah in Kenya. Journal of Applied Ecology, 26, pp 1005-1024.

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