NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF KENYAN SORGHUM-PIGEON PEA INSTANT COMPLEMENTARY FOOD
Keywords:Varieties, fermentation, malting, crude protein, anti-nutrients
An instant complementary food product was developed by blending flours from two improved sorghum varieties, Gadam and Seredo, a local variety (kivila kya ivui) and one improved pigeon pea variety KAT 60/8. The effects of fermentation, germination and dehulling techniques on nutritional and anti-nutrient composition of the food were determined. Malted sorghum, fermented sorghum and steam cooked dehulled pigeon pea flours were prepared by appropriate processes. The flours were blended at three different ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 5:1 (w/w, sorghum: pigeon pea). Untreated flour of both crops was also prepared and blended at the same ratios and used as control. Fermentation and malting increased the crude protein content significantly (P < 0.05). Fermented sorghum flour blend was found to be the highest with 14.11%. Crude protein content differed significantly among the formulations; flour blended at the ratio of 1:1 had the highest with 14.91%. The antinutrients content of the instant complementary food was significantly reduced by fermentation and malting. The tannin and phytate content was least in fermented and malted food which had 2.25 mg/100g and 207.5 mg/100g respectively. Blending flours at the ratio of 1:1 was found to be the most effective at reducing the antinutrients contents. The macro elements (Ca and Mg) were found to be highest in formulation 1:1 which had 29.81 mg/100g and 44.86 mg/100g respectively. Micro element (Fe) Iron was found to be highest in food formulated at the ratio of 5:1 which had 11.87 mg/100g. The results suggest that fermentation, as a processing technique and blending sorghum and pigeon pea flours at the ratio of 1:1 using Gadam variety, can be used to effectively enhance the nutritional status of sorghum- pigeon pea instant complementary food with concomitant reduction of its anti-nutritional factors.