PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF GREEN, ORTHODOX AND BLACK KENYAN TEA
Keywords:Green tea, orthodox tea, black tea, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial studies.
This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of green, orthodox and black Kenyan tea on five microorganisms with the possible purpose of determining their pharmacological significance/ medicinal value. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of three extracts of tea was done using humanly isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, and, Candida albicans. The assays were carried out by agar well diffusion. Streptomycin and cefadroxilserved asthe control drugs. Aqueoustea extracts were used for the assays. The aqueous tea extracts were found to be more effective against the tested bacteria than fungi at high concentration. Orthodox tea had no antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans. Extracts of green tea, orthodox and black tea showed activity on Staphylococcus aureus at concentrationsranging from 100‐200mgml‐1having comparable diameters of zones of inhibition of 10.0±0.0, 4±0.2 and 6.5±0.0 respectively. The first two tea extracts demonstrated activities on Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis at concentrationsranging from 100‐400mgml‐1 with relatively close diameters ofzones of inhibition of 14mm and 12mm respectively. Only black tea inhibited the growth of Candida albicans at the MIC of 100mgml‐1 whereas, Salmonella typhimurium was inhibited by green tea and black tea extracts at the MIC of 200mgml‐1 . Black tea also inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, but at concentration ranging from 200‐ 400mgml‐1 with diameter zones of inhibition from 3.5±0.0‐ 4.0±0.0 and a MIC of 150mgml‐1 . Phytochemical screening of the three extracts of tea showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, alkaloids,saponins, flavanoids, terpenes and tannins. Green tea lacked anthraquinones while orthodox tea lacked cardenolides. Results were interpreted according to Kirby‐Bauer technique. The results obtained in this study provide preliminary evidence of the significance of secondary metabolites of tea and and their pharmacological effects.